Cruciform DNA structure underlies the etiology for palindrome-mediated human chromosomal translocations

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Abstract

There is accumulating evidence to suggest that palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) represent hot spots of double-strand breakage that lead to recurrent chromosomal translocations in humans. As a mechanism for such rearrangements, we proposed that the PATRR forms a cruciform structure that is the source of genomic instability. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the tertiary structure of a cloned PATRR. We have observed that a plasmid containing this PATRR undergoes a conformational change, causing temperature-dependent mobility changes upon agarose gel electrophoresis. The mobility shift is observed in physiologic salt concentrations and is most prominent when the plasmid DNA is incubated at room temperature prior to electrophoresis. Analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicates that the mobility shift results from the formation of a cruciform structure. S1 nuclease and T7 endonuclease both cut the plasmid into a linear form, also suggesting cruciform formation. Furthermore, anti-cruciform DNA antibody reduces the electrophoretic mobility of the PATRR-containing fragment. Finally, we have directly visualized cruciform extrusions from the plasmid DNA with the size expected of hairpin arms using atomic force microscopy. Our data imply that for human chromosomes, translocation susceptibility is mediated by PATRRs and likely results from their unstable conformation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35377-35383
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume279
Issue number34
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20-08-2004

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Cruciform DNA
Genetic Translocation
Plasmids
Electrophoresis
DNA
Gels
Electrophoretic mobility
Temperature
Agar Gel Electrophoresis
Atomic Force Microscopy
Genomic Instability
Endonucleases
Antinuclear Antibodies
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
Human Chromosomes
Chromosomes
Sepharose
Extrusion
Conformations
Atomic force microscopy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Cruciform DNA structure underlies the etiology for palindrome-mediated human chromosomal translocations",
abstract = "There is accumulating evidence to suggest that palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) represent hot spots of double-strand breakage that lead to recurrent chromosomal translocations in humans. As a mechanism for such rearrangements, we proposed that the PATRR forms a cruciform structure that is the source of genomic instability. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the tertiary structure of a cloned PATRR. We have observed that a plasmid containing this PATRR undergoes a conformational change, causing temperature-dependent mobility changes upon agarose gel electrophoresis. The mobility shift is observed in physiologic salt concentrations and is most prominent when the plasmid DNA is incubated at room temperature prior to electrophoresis. Analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicates that the mobility shift results from the formation of a cruciform structure. S1 nuclease and T7 endonuclease both cut the plasmid into a linear form, also suggesting cruciform formation. Furthermore, anti-cruciform DNA antibody reduces the electrophoretic mobility of the PATRR-containing fragment. Finally, we have directly visualized cruciform extrusions from the plasmid DNA with the size expected of hairpin arms using atomic force microscopy. Our data imply that for human chromosomes, translocation susceptibility is mediated by PATRRs and likely results from their unstable conformation.",
author = "Hiroki Kurahashi and Hidehito Inagaki and Kouji Yamada and Tamae Ohye and Mariko Taniguchi and Emanuel, {Beverly S.} and Tatsushi Toda",
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T1 - Cruciform DNA structure underlies the etiology for palindrome-mediated human chromosomal translocations

AU - Kurahashi, Hiroki

AU - Inagaki, Hidehito

AU - Yamada, Kouji

AU - Ohye, Tamae

AU - Taniguchi, Mariko

AU - Emanuel, Beverly S.

AU - Toda, Tatsushi

PY - 2004/8/20

Y1 - 2004/8/20

N2 - There is accumulating evidence to suggest that palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) represent hot spots of double-strand breakage that lead to recurrent chromosomal translocations in humans. As a mechanism for such rearrangements, we proposed that the PATRR forms a cruciform structure that is the source of genomic instability. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the tertiary structure of a cloned PATRR. We have observed that a plasmid containing this PATRR undergoes a conformational change, causing temperature-dependent mobility changes upon agarose gel electrophoresis. The mobility shift is observed in physiologic salt concentrations and is most prominent when the plasmid DNA is incubated at room temperature prior to electrophoresis. Analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicates that the mobility shift results from the formation of a cruciform structure. S1 nuclease and T7 endonuclease both cut the plasmid into a linear form, also suggesting cruciform formation. Furthermore, anti-cruciform DNA antibody reduces the electrophoretic mobility of the PATRR-containing fragment. Finally, we have directly visualized cruciform extrusions from the plasmid DNA with the size expected of hairpin arms using atomic force microscopy. Our data imply that for human chromosomes, translocation susceptibility is mediated by PATRRs and likely results from their unstable conformation.

AB - There is accumulating evidence to suggest that palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) represent hot spots of double-strand breakage that lead to recurrent chromosomal translocations in humans. As a mechanism for such rearrangements, we proposed that the PATRR forms a cruciform structure that is the source of genomic instability. To test this hypothesis, we have investigated the tertiary structure of a cloned PATRR. We have observed that a plasmid containing this PATRR undergoes a conformational change, causing temperature-dependent mobility changes upon agarose gel electrophoresis. The mobility shift is observed in physiologic salt concentrations and is most prominent when the plasmid DNA is incubated at room temperature prior to electrophoresis. Analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicates that the mobility shift results from the formation of a cruciform structure. S1 nuclease and T7 endonuclease both cut the plasmid into a linear form, also suggesting cruciform formation. Furthermore, anti-cruciform DNA antibody reduces the electrophoretic mobility of the PATRR-containing fragment. Finally, we have directly visualized cruciform extrusions from the plasmid DNA with the size expected of hairpin arms using atomic force microscopy. Our data imply that for human chromosomes, translocation susceptibility is mediated by PATRRs and likely results from their unstable conformation.

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