Silicone oil (SO) is an intraocular surgical adjuvant that reduces the surgical complications in refractory retinal diseases, although membrane and cellular proliferation is often seen even in SO-filled eyes. We hypothesised that the fluid in the space between the SO and the retina, named the "sub-silicone oil fluid (SOF)", enhances these biological responses. We proposed a safe method for SOF extraction. We also analysed inflammatory cytokine expressions and SOF osmotic pressures from eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and macular hole-associated retinal detachment (MHRD). Interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12p40, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the SOF with PVR were significantly higher than in those with RRD or MHRD. Fibroblast growth factor-2, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-8, VEGF, and transforming growth factor beta 1 levels in eyes with exacerbated PDR indicated a significantly higher expression than those with simple PDR. IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha in eyes with exacerbated PVR demonstrated a significantly higher expression than in those with simple PVR. However, there was no difference in SOF osmotic pressure between group of each disease. These studies indicate that disease-specific SOF is a significant reflection of disease status.
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