A divalent cation-independent 16 kDa d-galactose binding lectin (AKL-2) was isolated from eggs of sea hare, Aplysia kurodai. The lectin recognized d-galactose and d-galacturonic acid and had a 32 kDa dimer consisting of two disulfide-bonded 16 kDa subunits. Eighteen N-terminus amino acids were identified by Edman degradation, having unique primary structure. Lectin blotting analysis with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins has shown that AKL-2 was a glycoprotein with complex type oligosaccharides with N-acetyl d-glucosamine and mannose at non-reducing terminal. Two protein bands with 38 and 36 kDa in the crude extract of sea hare eggs after purification of the lectin was isolated by AKL-2-conjugated Sepharose column and elution with 0.1 M lactose containing buffer. It suggested that the lectin binds with an endogenous ligand in the eggs. AKL-2 kept extreme stability on haemagglutination activity if it was treated at pH 3 and 70 °C for 1 h. Glycan binding profile of AKL-2 by frontal affinity chromatography technology using 15 pyridylamine labeled oligosaccharides has been appeared that the lectin uniquely recognized globotriose (Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc; Gb3) in addition to bi-antennary complex type N-linked oligosaccharides with N-acetyllactosamine. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of AKL-2 against a neo-glycoprotein, Gb3-human serum albumin showed the k ass and k diss values are 2.4 × 10 3 M -1 s -1 and 3.8 × 10 -3 s -1, respectively. AKL-2 appeared cytotoxicity against both Burkitt's lymphoma Raji cell and erythroleukemia K562. The activity to Raji by the lectin was preferably cancelled by the co-presence of melibiose mimicing Gb3. On the other hand, K562 was cancelled effectively by lactose than melibiose. It elucidated that AKL-2 had cytotoxic ability mediated glycans structure to cultured cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry