Daytime light exposure in daily life and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder: A cross-sectional analysis in the APPLE cohort

Yuichi Esaki, Tsuyoshi Kitajima, Kenji Obayashi, Keigo Saeki, Kiyoshi Fujita, Nakao Iwata

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11 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Controlled artificial daylight exposure, such as light therapy, is effective in bipolar depression, but the association between uncontrolled daytime light and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder (BD) is unclear. This study investigated the association between daytime light exposure under real-life situations and depressive symptom in patients with BD. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 181 outpatients with BD. The average daytime light intensity and the total duration of light intensity of ≥1000 lux were recorded over 7 consecutive days using an actigraph that measured ambient light. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and scores of ≥8 points were treated as depressed state. Results: Ninety-seven (53.6%) subjects were depressed state. At higher average daytime light intensity tertiles, the proportion of depressed state was significantly lower (P for trend, 0.003). In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, employment status, age at onset of BD, Young Mania Rating Scale score, bedtime, and physical activity, the highest tertile group in average daytime light intensity suggested a significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depressed state than the lowest tertile group (OR, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–0.75; P = 0.009). Similarly, the longest tertile group in light intensity ≥1000 lux duration was significantly associated with lower OR for depressed state than lowest tertile group (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18–0.93; P = 0.033). Conclusions: The findings suggest that greater daytime light exposure in daily life is associated with decreased depressive symptoms in BD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-156
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
Publication statusPublished - 09-2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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