To clarify the temperature dependence of susceptibility estimated by quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) analysis, we investigated the relationship between temperature and susceptibility using a cylinder phantom with varying temperatures. Six solutions with various concentrations of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles were employed. These tubes were placed in a cylinder phantom and surrounded with water. The temperature of the circulated water was adjusted to change the temperature in the cylinder phantom from 25.8 °C to 42.5 °C. The cylinder phantom was scanned via a three-dimensional multiple spoiled gradient-echo sequence for R2* and QSM analyses with varying temperatures. The relationships between temperature, susceptibility, and R2* values were determined. Moreover, the temperature coefficients of susceptibility (χ-Tc) and (R2*-Tc) were calculated at each concentration and the linearities in these indices against each SPIO concentration were validated. Significant inverse correlations were found between temperature, susceptibility, and R2* values at each SPIO concentration due to the decrease in paramagnetic iron susceptibility that occurred with increasing temperature based on Curie's law. Moreover, although there were significant correlations between the susceptibility and R2* values at any temperature, the slopes of the regression lines grew in height with greater temperatures. The percentage of difference per Celsius degree in susceptibility in any SPIO concentration was lower than the corresponding finding among the R2* results. There were strong linearities between the SPIO concentration, χ-Tc (r = −0.994; p < 0.001), and R2*-Tc (r = −0.998; p < 0.001). The χ-Tc and R2*-Tc outcomes in a particular voxel varied considerably with the iron contents. Although there was an inverse correlation noted between temperature and susceptibility, the susceptibility analysis showed smaller temperature dependence relative to the R2* analysis. QSM analysis might be a more suitable option for magnetic resonance-based iron quantification in comparison with R2* relaxometry.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging