Detection of Plasmodium knowlesi DNA in the urine and faeces of a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) over the course of an experimentally induced infection

Satoru Kawai, Megumi Sato, Naoko Kato-Hayashi, Hisashi Kishi, Michael A. Huffman, Yoshimasa Maeno, Richard Culleton, Shusuke Nakazawa

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Abstract

Results: Urinary PkDNA was detected on day 2, but was not amplified using DNA templates extracted from the samples on day 4, day 5 and day 6. Subsequently, urinary PkDNA was detected from day 7 until day 11, and from day 20 until day 30. PkDNA in faeces was detected from day 7 until day 11, and from day 20 until day 37. Moreover, real-time quantitative PCR showed a remarkable increase in the amount of urinary PkDNA following anti-malarial treatment. This might have been due to the release of a large amount of PkDNA from the degraded parasites as a result of the anti-malarial treatment, leading to excretion of PkDNA in the urine.

Methods. Urine and faeces were obtained from a Plasmodium knowlesi infected-Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) over the course of an experimentally induced infection. P. knowlesi DNA (PkDNA) extracted from urine and faeces were monitored by nested PCR targeting the P. knowlesi specific cytochrome b (cytb) gene.

Background: Diagnostic techniques based on PCR for the detection of Plasmodium DNA can be highly sensitive and specific. The vast majority of these techniques rely, however, on the invasive sampling of blood from infected hosts. There is, currently, considerable interest in the possibility of using body fluids other than blood as sources of parasite DNA for PCR diagnosis.

Conclusions: The cytb-PCR system using urine and faecal samples is of potential use in molecular epidemiological surveys of malaria. In particular, monkey faecal samples could be useful for the detection of zoonotic primate malaria in its natural hosts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number373
JournalMalaria Journal
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19-09-2014

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

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