Determination of optimum retrograde cerebral perfusion conditions

A. Usui, K. Oohara, T. L. Liu, M. Murase, M. Tanaka, E. Takeuchi, T. Abe

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81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Retrograde cerebral perfusion through a superior vena caval cannula is a new technique used to protect the brain during operations on the aortic arch. We measured cerebral tissue blood flow, oxygen consumption, and cerebrospinal fluid pressure under various perfusion conditions in hypothermic (20° C) mongrel dogs (n = 18, 12.8 ± 0.6 kg) to determine the optimum conditions for retrograde cerebral perfusion. Retrograde cerebral perfusion was performed by infusion via the superior vena caval cannula and drainage via the ascending aortic cannula while the inferior vena cava and azygos vein were clamped. Retrograde cerebral perfusion was performed as the external jugular venous pressure was changed from 15 to 35 mm Hg in increments of 5 mm Hg. Cerebral tissue blood flow was measured by the hydrogen clearance method. Hypothermic retrograde cerebral perfusion with an external jugular venous pressure of 25 mm Hg provided about half the cerebral tissue blood flow of hypothermic (20° C) cardiopulmonary bypass with a flow rate of 1000 ml/min (13.7 ± 7.9 versus 32.7 ± 8.5 ml/min per 100 gm). It decreased significantly as the external jugular venous pressure was decreased from 25 to 15 mm Hg but did not increase significantly as the external jugular venous pressure was increased from 25 to 35 mm Hg. Whole-body oxygen consumption during hypothermic retrograde cerebral perfusion with an external jugular venous pressure of 25 mm Hg was one quarter of that during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (3.4 ± 0.7 versus 12.7 ± 5.6 ml/min) and varied in proportion to external jugular venous pressure. The cerebrospinal fluid pressure was a little lower than the external jugular venous pressure (19.2 ± 4.5 mm Hg versus 24.8 ± 2.4 mm Hg) but also varied with the external jugular venous pressure. The cerebrospinal fluid pressure remained lower than 25 mm Hg so long as the external jugular venous pressure remained lower than 25 mm Hg. High external jugular venous pressure was associated with high intracranial pressure, which restricts cerebral tissue blood flow and may cause brain edema. We believe that a venous pressure of 25 mm Hg is the optimum condition for retrograde cerebral perfusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300-308
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume107
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1994

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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