Development of balloon-borne hard X-ray telescopes using multilayer supermirror

K. Tamura, K. Yamashita, H. Kunieda, Y. Tawara, A. Furuzawa, K. Haga, G. S. Lodha, N. Nakajo, N. Nakamura, Takashi Okajima, Osamu Tsuda, P. J. Serlemitsos, J. Tueller, R. Petre, Y. Ogasaka, Y. Soong, K. Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present new results in the development of high throughput hard X-ray telescopes with multilayer supermirror coatings. Basic technique to make the supermirror are at first developed in deposition of constant d spacing multilayers. The reflector of multilayer on the float glass achieves high reflectivity, limited by the surface roughness of substarate, while, we need more improvement in getting comparable reflectivity of multilayers on the replica foil. We put the mask just in front of sample, it reduce the non uniformity of the thickness less than 2 %. In order to maximize the effective area and field of view, we have optimized the supermirror parameters; d spacing, number of layer pairs, and thickness ratio of heavy and light element. Multiblock method is introduced to design the supermirror, and it gives high reflectivity of ∼ 30 % in the 25 - 40 kev band. A test supermirror sputtered on a glass sample exhibits reasonable reflectivities of about 20 - 30 %. We designed a telescope system with 45 cm diameter, 20 cm mirror length in two stage, and focal length of 8 m. The effective area of four such telescopes is 320 cm2 for the X-rays between 25 and 40 keV. We plan the application of this type of telescopes to the balloon experiment named InFOC μ S to reveal hard X-ray images of clusters of galaxies or supernova remnants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-292
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume3113
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-12-1997
EventGrazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: 27-07-199729-07-1997

Fingerprint

X-ray Telescopes
Hard X-ray
Balloon
Balloons
balloons
Reflectivity
Telescopes
Multilayer
Multilayers
telescopes
Telescope
reflectance
X rays
Spacing
x rays
spacing
Glass
Multiblock
Galaxies
thickness ratio

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Tamura, K. ; Yamashita, K. ; Kunieda, H. ; Tawara, Y. ; Furuzawa, A. ; Haga, K. ; Lodha, G. S. ; Nakajo, N. ; Nakamura, N. ; Okajima, Takashi ; Tsuda, Osamu ; Serlemitsos, P. J. ; Tueller, J. ; Petre, R. ; Ogasaka, Y. ; Soong, Y. ; Chan, K. / Development of balloon-borne hard X-ray telescopes using multilayer supermirror. In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. 1997 ; Vol. 3113. pp. 285-292.
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abstract = "We present new results in the development of high throughput hard X-ray telescopes with multilayer supermirror coatings. Basic technique to make the supermirror are at first developed in deposition of constant d spacing multilayers. The reflector of multilayer on the float glass achieves high reflectivity, limited by the surface roughness of substarate, while, we need more improvement in getting comparable reflectivity of multilayers on the replica foil. We put the mask just in front of sample, it reduce the non uniformity of the thickness less than 2 {\%}. In order to maximize the effective area and field of view, we have optimized the supermirror parameters; d spacing, number of layer pairs, and thickness ratio of heavy and light element. Multiblock method is introduced to design the supermirror, and it gives high reflectivity of ∼ 30 {\%} in the 25 - 40 kev band. A test supermirror sputtered on a glass sample exhibits reasonable reflectivities of about 20 - 30 {\%}. We designed a telescope system with 45 cm diameter, 20 cm mirror length in two stage, and focal length of 8 m. The effective area of four such telescopes is 320 cm2 for the X-rays between 25 and 40 keV. We plan the application of this type of telescopes to the balloon experiment named InFOC μ S to reveal hard X-ray images of clusters of galaxies or supernova remnants.",
author = "K. Tamura and K. Yamashita and H. Kunieda and Y. Tawara and A. Furuzawa and K. Haga and Lodha, {G. S.} and N. Nakajo and N. Nakamura and Takashi Okajima and Osamu Tsuda and Serlemitsos, {P. J.} and J. Tueller and R. Petre and Y. Ogasaka and Y. Soong and K. Chan",
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Tamura, K, Yamashita, K, Kunieda, H, Tawara, Y, Furuzawa, A, Haga, K, Lodha, GS, Nakajo, N, Nakamura, N, Okajima, T, Tsuda, O, Serlemitsos, PJ, Tueller, J, Petre, R, Ogasaka, Y, Soong, Y & Chan, K 1997, 'Development of balloon-borne hard X-ray telescopes using multilayer supermirror', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 3113, pp. 285-292. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.278858

Development of balloon-borne hard X-ray telescopes using multilayer supermirror. / Tamura, K.; Yamashita, K.; Kunieda, H.; Tawara, Y.; Furuzawa, A.; Haga, K.; Lodha, G. S.; Nakajo, N.; Nakamura, N.; Okajima, Takashi; Tsuda, Osamu; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Tueller, J.; Petre, R.; Ogasaka, Y.; Soong, Y.; Chan, K.

In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 3113, 01.12.1997, p. 285-292.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development of balloon-borne hard X-ray telescopes using multilayer supermirror

AU - Tamura, K.

AU - Yamashita, K.

AU - Kunieda, H.

AU - Tawara, Y.

AU - Furuzawa, A.

AU - Haga, K.

AU - Lodha, G. S.

AU - Nakajo, N.

AU - Nakamura, N.

AU - Okajima, Takashi

AU - Tsuda, Osamu

AU - Serlemitsos, P. J.

AU - Tueller, J.

AU - Petre, R.

AU - Ogasaka, Y.

AU - Soong, Y.

AU - Chan, K.

PY - 1997/12/1

Y1 - 1997/12/1

N2 - We present new results in the development of high throughput hard X-ray telescopes with multilayer supermirror coatings. Basic technique to make the supermirror are at first developed in deposition of constant d spacing multilayers. The reflector of multilayer on the float glass achieves high reflectivity, limited by the surface roughness of substarate, while, we need more improvement in getting comparable reflectivity of multilayers on the replica foil. We put the mask just in front of sample, it reduce the non uniformity of the thickness less than 2 %. In order to maximize the effective area and field of view, we have optimized the supermirror parameters; d spacing, number of layer pairs, and thickness ratio of heavy and light element. Multiblock method is introduced to design the supermirror, and it gives high reflectivity of ∼ 30 % in the 25 - 40 kev band. A test supermirror sputtered on a glass sample exhibits reasonable reflectivities of about 20 - 30 %. We designed a telescope system with 45 cm diameter, 20 cm mirror length in two stage, and focal length of 8 m. The effective area of four such telescopes is 320 cm2 for the X-rays between 25 and 40 keV. We plan the application of this type of telescopes to the balloon experiment named InFOC μ S to reveal hard X-ray images of clusters of galaxies or supernova remnants.

AB - We present new results in the development of high throughput hard X-ray telescopes with multilayer supermirror coatings. Basic technique to make the supermirror are at first developed in deposition of constant d spacing multilayers. The reflector of multilayer on the float glass achieves high reflectivity, limited by the surface roughness of substarate, while, we need more improvement in getting comparable reflectivity of multilayers on the replica foil. We put the mask just in front of sample, it reduce the non uniformity of the thickness less than 2 %. In order to maximize the effective area and field of view, we have optimized the supermirror parameters; d spacing, number of layer pairs, and thickness ratio of heavy and light element. Multiblock method is introduced to design the supermirror, and it gives high reflectivity of ∼ 30 % in the 25 - 40 kev band. A test supermirror sputtered on a glass sample exhibits reasonable reflectivities of about 20 - 30 %. We designed a telescope system with 45 cm diameter, 20 cm mirror length in two stage, and focal length of 8 m. The effective area of four such telescopes is 320 cm2 for the X-rays between 25 and 40 keV. We plan the application of this type of telescopes to the balloon experiment named InFOC μ S to reveal hard X-ray images of clusters of galaxies or supernova remnants.

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