Development of supermirror hard X-ray telescope and the results of the first InFOCuS flight observation

Yasushi Ogasaka, Keisuke Tamura, Takashi Okajima, Yuzuru Tawara, Koujun Yamashita, Akihiro Furuzawa, Kazutoshi Haga, Satoshi Ichimaru, Seiji Takahashi, Shin'ichi Fukuda, Hideo Kito, Arifumi Goto, Seima Kato, Hiroyuki Satake, Kentaro Nomoto, Noriyuki Hamada, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Jack Tueller, Yang Soong, Kai Win ChanScott M. Owens, Fred B. Berendse, Hans A. Krimm, Wayne Baumgartner, Scott D. Barthelmy, Hideyo Kunieda, Kazutami Misaki, Ryo Shibata, Hideyuki Mori, Kei Itoh, Yoshiharu Namba

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The development of hard X-ray focusing optics is widely recognized as one of key technologies for future X-ray observatory missions such as NeXT(Japan), Constellation-X(US) and possibly XEUS(Europe). We have developed hard X-ray telescope employing depth-graded multilayers, so-called supermirrors. Its benefit is to reflect hard X-rays by Bragg reflection at incidence angles larger than the critical angle of total external reflection. InFOCμS is an international balloon-borne hard X-ray observation experiment initiated by NASA/GSFC. InFOCμS hard X-ray telescope has been jointly developed by Nagoya University and GSFC. The telescope is conical approximation of Wolter-I optics with 8 m focal length and 40 cm diameter. It consists of 255 nested ultra-thin reflector pairs with incidence angles of 0.10 to 0.36 deg. Reflectors are coated with Pt/C supermirrors with periodic length of 2.9 to 13 nm and bi-layer number of 25 to 65, depending on incidence angles. The effective area and imaging quality are expected as 100 cm2 at 30 keV and 2 arcmin in Half Power Diameter, respectively. The InFOCμS experiment was launched on July 5, 2001, from National Scientific Balloon Facility in Texas, USA. We successfully observed Cyg X-1, chosen for a calibration target, in 20-40 keV energy band. We are planning to carry out next flight for scientific observations as soon as additional telescopes, detectors, and upgraded gondola system are implemented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)619-630
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-12-2002
Externally publishedYes
EventX-ray and Gamma-Ray telescopes and Instruments for Astronomy - Waikoloa, HI, United States
Duration: 24-08-200228-08-2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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