Diagnostic significance of secondary bacteremia in patients with COVID-19

The Japan COVID-19 Task Force

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: We investigated the occurrence of non-respiratory bacterial and fungal secondary infections, causative organisms, impact on clinical outcomes, and association between the secondary pathogens and mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that included data from inpatients with COVID-19 from multiple centers participating in the Japan COVID-19 Taskforce (April 2020 to May 2021). We obtained demographic, epidemiological, and microbiological data throughout the course of hospitalization and analyzed the cases of COVID-19 complicated by non-respiratory bacterial infections. Results: Of the 1914 patients included, non-respiratory bacterial infections with COVID-19 were diagnosed in 81 patients (4.2%). Of these, 59 (3.1%) were secondary infections. Bacteremia was the most frequent bacterial infection, occurring in 33 cases (55.9%), followed by urinary tract infections in 16 cases (27.1%). Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common causative organism of bacteremia. Patients with COVID-19 with non-respiratory secondary bacterial infections had significantly higher mortality, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that those with bacteremia (aOdds Ratio = 15.3 [5.97–39.1]) were at higher risk of death. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, use of steroids to treat COVID-19, and intensive care unit admission increased the risk for nosocomial bacteremia. Conclusions: Secondary bacteremia is an important complication that may lead to poor prognosis in cases with COVID-19. An appropriate medical management strategy must be established, especially for patients with concomitant predisposing factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-426
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 04-2023
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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