Background: Both Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) and reverse TTC (r-TTC) are characterized by reversible regional wall motion abnormalities of the heart unrelated to coronary artery pathology. It remains unclear whether and/or how r-TTC differs from TTC. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is occasionally causative of TTC/r-TTC, and this study was conducted to detect possible differences between TTC and r-TTC associated with SAH. Methods: A single-center retrospective study was conducted on 328 consecutive SAH patients. They routinely underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), ECG, and measurements of plasma catecholamines and other cardiac biomarkers within 24 h of admission. Demographic, echocardiographic, electrocardiographic and neurochemical profiles were compared between patients with TTC and r-TTC. The diagnosis of TTC/r-TTC was based on the revised Mayo Clinic Criteria. Results: Data of 21 SAH-induced TTC and 10 SAH-induced r-TTC patients admitted between January 2009 and December 2014 were analyzed. The patients with r-TTC were significantly younger than those with TTC (51.8 ± 10.9 vs. 63.5 ± 14.4 years, p = 0.04). The former exhibited significantly higher plasma epinephrine levels than the latter (809 ± 710 vs. 380 ± 391 pg/mL, p = 0.04). Plasma norepinephrine levels did not differ significantly (2421 ± 1374 vs. 1724 ± 1591 pg/mL, p = 0.25). No significant differences were observed in other demographic/physiologic variables, echocardiographic parameters, frequency of ECG abnormalities, and 90-day mortality. Moreover, none of the patients who underwent a follow-up TTE exhibited morphologic change from one type to the other. Conclusions: The pathomechanisms in TTC and r-TTC may not be identical: however, distinguishing the two conditions may not have great importance from the standpoint of clinical management and prognostication.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine