Introduction The aim of brain glioma surgery is to maximize the quality of resection, while minimizing the risk of sequelae. Due to the frequent location of gliomas near or within eloquent areas, owing to their infiltrative feature, and because of major interindividual variability, the anatomofunctional organization and connectivity must be studied individually. Therefore, to optimize the benefit-to-risk ratio of surgery, intraoperative functional mapping is extensively used. Material and methods This article aims at describing the rationale, indications and practical aspects of intraoperative direct electrical bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions using the asleep-awake asleep anaesthetic protocol in the setting of cerebral gliomas. We will address the operative approach, including patient positioning, functional mapping resection strategy, anaesthetic conditions, as well as tips and pitfalls. Results The intraoperative direct electrical bipolar electrostimulation enables: (i) to study the real-time individual cortical functional organization; (ii) to study the anatomofunctional subcortical connectivity along the resection; (iii) to tailor the resection according to individual corticosubcortical functional boundaries. This is an easy, accurate, reliable, well-tolerated and safe detection technique of both cortical and subcortical functionally essential structures during resection. It should be performed in the context of a standardized protocol involving members of both anaesthesiology and neurosurgery teams at neurosurgical centers specialized in surgical neuro-oncology. Conclusion Intraoperative direct electrical bipolar electrostimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping under awake conditions is currently considered the “gold standard” clinical tool for brain mapping during cerebral resection in neuro-oncology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology