DNA from pre-erythrocytic stage malaria parasites is detectable by PCR in the faeces and blood of hosts

Hussein M. Abkallo, Weimin Liu, Sarina Hokama, Pedro E. Ferreira, Shusuke Nakazawa, Yoshimasa Maeno, Nguyen T. Quang, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Osamu Kaneko, Michael A. Huffman, Satoru Kawai, Ron P. Marchand, Richard Carter, Beatrice H. Hahn, Richard Culleton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Following the bite of an infective mosquito, malaria parasites first invade the liver where they develop and replicate for a number of days before being released into the bloodstream where they invade red blood cells and cause disease. The biology of the liver stages of malaria parasites is relatively poorly understood due to the inaccessibility of the parasites to sampling during this phase of their life cycle. Here we report the detection in blood and faecal samples of malaria parasite DNA throughout their development in the livers of mice and before the parasites begin their growth in the blood circulation. It is shown that parasite DNA derived from pre-erythrocytic stage parasites reaches the faeces via the bile. We then show that different primate malaria species can be detected by PCR in blood and faecal samples from naturally infected captive macaque monkeys. These results demonstrate that pre-erythrocytic parasites can be detected and quantified in experimentally infected animals. Furthermore, these results have important implications for both molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of malaria parasites. In the former case, individuals who are malaria parasite negative by microscopy, but PCR positive for parasite DNA in their blood, are considered to be "sub-microscopic" blood stage parasite carriers. We now propose that PCR positivity is not necessarily an indicator of the presence of blood stage parasites, as the DNA could derive from pre-erythrocytic parasites. Similarly, in the case of molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences alone, we argue that DNA amplified from blood or faeces does not necessarily come from a parasite species that infects the red blood cells of that particular host.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-473
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal for Parasitology
Volume44
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2014

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Feces
Malaria
Parasites
Polymerase Chain Reaction
DNA
Liver
Erythrocytes
Molecular Epidemiology
Blood Circulation
Macaca
Bites and Stings
Life Cycle Stages
Culicidae
Bile
Primates
Haplorhini
Microscopy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Abkallo, Hussein M. ; Liu, Weimin ; Hokama, Sarina ; Ferreira, Pedro E. ; Nakazawa, Shusuke ; Maeno, Yoshimasa ; Quang, Nguyen T. ; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki ; Kaneko, Osamu ; Huffman, Michael A. ; Kawai, Satoru ; Marchand, Ron P. ; Carter, Richard ; Hahn, Beatrice H. ; Culleton, Richard. / DNA from pre-erythrocytic stage malaria parasites is detectable by PCR in the faeces and blood of hosts. In: International Journal for Parasitology. 2014 ; Vol. 44, No. 7. pp. 467-473.
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abstract = "Following the bite of an infective mosquito, malaria parasites first invade the liver where they develop and replicate for a number of days before being released into the bloodstream where they invade red blood cells and cause disease. The biology of the liver stages of malaria parasites is relatively poorly understood due to the inaccessibility of the parasites to sampling during this phase of their life cycle. Here we report the detection in blood and faecal samples of malaria parasite DNA throughout their development in the livers of mice and before the parasites begin their growth in the blood circulation. It is shown that parasite DNA derived from pre-erythrocytic stage parasites reaches the faeces via the bile. We then show that different primate malaria species can be detected by PCR in blood and faecal samples from naturally infected captive macaque monkeys. These results demonstrate that pre-erythrocytic parasites can be detected and quantified in experimentally infected animals. Furthermore, these results have important implications for both molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of malaria parasites. In the former case, individuals who are malaria parasite negative by microscopy, but PCR positive for parasite DNA in their blood, are considered to be {"}sub-microscopic{"} blood stage parasite carriers. We now propose that PCR positivity is not necessarily an indicator of the presence of blood stage parasites, as the DNA could derive from pre-erythrocytic parasites. Similarly, in the case of molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences alone, we argue that DNA amplified from blood or faeces does not necessarily come from a parasite species that infects the red blood cells of that particular host.",
author = "Abkallo, {Hussein M.} and Weimin Liu and Sarina Hokama and Ferreira, {Pedro E.} and Shusuke Nakazawa and Yoshimasa Maeno and Quang, {Nguyen T.} and Nobuyuki Kobayashi and Osamu Kaneko and Huffman, {Michael A.} and Satoru Kawai and Marchand, {Ron P.} and Richard Carter and Hahn, {Beatrice H.} and Richard Culleton",
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Abkallo, HM, Liu, W, Hokama, S, Ferreira, PE, Nakazawa, S, Maeno, Y, Quang, NT, Kobayashi, N, Kaneko, O, Huffman, MA, Kawai, S, Marchand, RP, Carter, R, Hahn, BH & Culleton, R 2014, 'DNA from pre-erythrocytic stage malaria parasites is detectable by PCR in the faeces and blood of hosts', International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 467-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.03.002

DNA from pre-erythrocytic stage malaria parasites is detectable by PCR in the faeces and blood of hosts. / Abkallo, Hussein M.; Liu, Weimin; Hokama, Sarina; Ferreira, Pedro E.; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Maeno, Yoshimasa; Quang, Nguyen T.; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Osamu; Huffman, Michael A.; Kawai, Satoru; Marchand, Ron P.; Carter, Richard; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Culleton, Richard.

In: International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 44, No. 7, 01.01.2014, p. 467-473.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - DNA from pre-erythrocytic stage malaria parasites is detectable by PCR in the faeces and blood of hosts

AU - Abkallo, Hussein M.

AU - Liu, Weimin

AU - Hokama, Sarina

AU - Ferreira, Pedro E.

AU - Nakazawa, Shusuke

AU - Maeno, Yoshimasa

AU - Quang, Nguyen T.

AU - Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

AU - Kaneko, Osamu

AU - Huffman, Michael A.

AU - Kawai, Satoru

AU - Marchand, Ron P.

AU - Carter, Richard

AU - Hahn, Beatrice H.

AU - Culleton, Richard

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Following the bite of an infective mosquito, malaria parasites first invade the liver where they develop and replicate for a number of days before being released into the bloodstream where they invade red blood cells and cause disease. The biology of the liver stages of malaria parasites is relatively poorly understood due to the inaccessibility of the parasites to sampling during this phase of their life cycle. Here we report the detection in blood and faecal samples of malaria parasite DNA throughout their development in the livers of mice and before the parasites begin their growth in the blood circulation. It is shown that parasite DNA derived from pre-erythrocytic stage parasites reaches the faeces via the bile. We then show that different primate malaria species can be detected by PCR in blood and faecal samples from naturally infected captive macaque monkeys. These results demonstrate that pre-erythrocytic parasites can be detected and quantified in experimentally infected animals. Furthermore, these results have important implications for both molecular epidemiology and phylogenetics of malaria parasites. In the former case, individuals who are malaria parasite negative by microscopy, but PCR positive for parasite DNA in their blood, are considered to be "sub-microscopic" blood stage parasite carriers. We now propose that PCR positivity is not necessarily an indicator of the presence of blood stage parasites, as the DNA could derive from pre-erythrocytic parasites. Similarly, in the case of molecular phylogenetics based on DNA sequences alone, we argue that DNA amplified from blood or faeces does not necessarily come from a parasite species that infects the red blood cells of that particular host.

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