Dual regulation of the Bacillus subtilis regulon comprising the lmrAB and yxaGH operons and yxaF gene by two transcriptional repressors, LmrA and YxaF, in response to flavonoids

Kazutake Hirooka, Satoshi Kunikane, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Ken Ichi Yoshida, Kanako Kumamoto, Shigeo Tojo, Yasutaro Fujita

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Bacillus subtilis LmrA is known to be a repressor that regulates the lmrAB and yxaGH operons; lmrB and yxaG encode a multidrug resistance pump and quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase, respectively. DNase I footprinting analysis revealed that LmrA and YxaF, which are paralogous to each other, bind specifically to almost the same cis sequences, LmrA/YxaF boxes, located in the promoter regions of the lmrAB operon, the yxaF gene, and the yxaGH operon for their repression and containing a consensus sequence of AWTATAtagaNYGgTCTA, where W, Y, and N stand for A or T, C or T, and any base, respectively (three-out-of-four match [in lowercase type]). Gel retardation analysis indicated that out of the eight flavonoids tested, quercetin, fisetin, and catechin are most inhibitory for LmrA to DNA binding, whereas quercetin, fisetin, tamarixetin, and galangin are most inhibitory for YxaF. Also, YxaF bound most tightly to the tandem LmrA/YxaF boxes in the yxaGH promoter region. The lacZ fusion experiments essentially supported the above-mentioned in vitro results, except that galangin did not activate the lmrAB and yxaGH promoters, probably due to its poor incorporation into cells. Thus, the LmrA/YxaF regulon presumably comprising the lmrAB operon, the yxaF gene, and the yxaGH operon is induced in response to certain flavonoids. The in vivo experiments to examine the regulation of the synthesis of the reporter β-galactosidase and quercetin 2,3-dioxgenase as well as that of multidrug resistance suggested that LmrA represses the lmrAB and yxaGH operons but that YxaF represses yxaGH more preferentially.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5170-5182
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Bacteriology
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 01-07-2007


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology

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