Durable Response to Enfortumab Vedotin Compared to Re-challenging Chemotherapy in Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma After Checkpoint Inhibitors

Taizo Uchimoto, Shuya Tsuchida, Kazumasa Komura, Wataru Fukuokaya, Takahiro Adachi, Yosuke Hirasawa, Takeshi Hashimoto, Atsuhiko Yoshizawa, Masanobu Saruta, Mamoru Hashimoto, Takuya Higashio, Takuya Matsuda, Kazuki Nishimura, Takuya Tsujino, Ko Nakamura, Tatsuo Fukushima, Kyosuke Nishio, Shutaro Yamamoto, Kosuke Iwatani, Fumihiko UrabeKeiichiro Mori, Takafumi Yanagisawa, Shunsuke Tsuduki, Kiyoshi Takahara, Teruo Inamoto, Jun Miki, Kazutoshi Fujita, Takahiro Kimura, Yoshio Ohno, Ryoichi Shiroki, Hirotsugu Uemura, Haruhito Azuma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Enfortumab vedotin (EV), an antibody–drug conjugate targeting Nectin-4, has been used for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) after progressing on checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). Re-challenging chemotherapy with platinum agents and continuing CPIs beyond progressive disease (PD) have often been chosen following PD on CPIs, and several studies indicate favorable treatment effects of re-challenging chemotherapy. There is little evidence for comparing EV and re-challenging chemotherapy in real-world clinical practice. Objective: The aim was to reveal the real-world treatment outcomes of EV, re-challenging chemotherapy, and continuing CPIs beyond PD in mUC patients. Patients and Methods: A multi-institutional dataset of 350 mUC patients treated with CPIs was utilized. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and duration of response (DOR) were evaluated to compare the treatment arms. Results: One hundred and nine mUC patients were treated with EV with a median follow-up of 6.4 months. The ORR and disease control rate (DCR) were 48% and 70%, respectively. The OS from PD on pembrolizumab exhibited significant differences among the three groups, with a median OS of 8, 14, and 29 months in continuing pembrolizumab beyond PD, re-challenging chemotherapy, and EV, respectively. When comparing the survival outcomes from the initiation of the treatment, there is neither a difference in OS (p = 0.124), PFS (p = 0.936), nor ORR (p = 0.816) between EV and re-challenging chemotherapy. Notably, the DOR in patients who achieved an objective response was significantly longer in the EV group than the re-challenging chemotherapy group (a median of 11 and 5 months, p = 0.049). For OS, the difference was not statistically significant (27 and 11 months in EV and re-challenging chemotherapy, respectively: p = 0.05). Conclusions: A superior effect of EV on patient survival compared to re-challenging chemotherapy and continuing pembrolizumab beyond PD was observed in our real-world analysis, which is attributed to the durable DOR in EV treatment despite the similar ORR to re-challenging chemotherapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-410
Number of pages10
JournalTargeted Oncology
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 05-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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