Atrial remodeling is considered to be any persistent change in atrial structure or function, and is responsible for the development and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Oxidative stress and intracellular pH regulation may also be linked to AF; however it remains unclear whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or statins have beneficial therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of EPA and pitavastatin on the electrophysiology of and gene expressions in mice with rapidly-paced atria. Mice were treated with EPA (10 mg/g/day) or pitavastatin (30 ng/g/day) for 6 weeks, following which AF was simulated by 8-h atrial pacing at 1,800 bpm. The atrial electrophysiological properties and the expression of cardiac genes, potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 (Kcna5), Kcn subfamily D member 2 (Kcnd2), Kv channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2), solute carrier family 9 member A1, thrombomodulin (TM) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In control mice, significant atrial electrical remodeling was observed (P<0.05); however, treatment with either EPA or pitavastatin ameliorated these electrophysiological changes (P>0.05). mRNA levels of Kcnd2, KChIP2 and Kcna5 were significantly upregulated in control mice (P<0.05), whereas treatment with EPA or pitavastatin attenuated this upregulation (P>0.05). Administration of pitavastatin significantly reduced the downregulation of both TFPI andTM (P<0.05). EPA treatment attenuated the TFPI downregulation compared with control mice (P>0.05), however no significant effect onTM expression was observed. In addition, both EPA (P>0.05) and pitavastatin (P<0.05) suppressed the overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. This was also exhibited in Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 genes (P<0.01 for both treatments). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that EPA and pitavastatin are able to prevent atrial electrical remodeling, thrombotic states and oxidative stress in rapidly-paced murine atria.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
- Cancer Research