The many known eukaryotic DNA polymerases are classified into four families; A, B, X, and Y. Among them, DNA polymerase η, a Y family polymerase, is a low fidelity enzyme that contributes to translesional synthesis and somatic hypermutation. Although a high mutation frequency is observed in immunoglobulin genes, translesional synthesis occurs with a high accuracy. We determined whether the misincorporation rate of DNA polymerase η varies with ambient conditions. It has been reported that DNA polymerase η is unable to exclude water molecules from the active site. This finding suggests that some ions affect hydrogen bond formation at the active site. We focused on the effect of pH and evaluated the misincorporation rate of deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) opposite template T by DNA polymerase η at various pH levels with a synthetic template-primer. The misincorporation rate of dGTP by DNA polymerase η drastically increased at pH 8.0-9.0 compared with that at pH 6.5-7.5. Kinetic analysis revealed that the Km value for dGTP on the misincorporation opposite template T was markedly affected by pH. However, this drastic change was not seen with the low fidelity DNA polymerase α.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmaceutical Science