This study evaluated the effects of the effortful swallow (ES) on pharyngeal cavity volume using three-dimensional kinematic analyses. Nine healthy volunteers (30.7 ± 7.8 years old) underwent a CT scan while swallowing 10 ml of honey thick liquid using no maneuvers (control) and during an ES. Upper and lower volumes (bordered by valleculae) of the pharyngeal air column and the bolus were measured at every frame and were compared between ES and control swallows. Duration of pharyngeal obliteration and the timing of swallowing events were also measured. Maximum volume and volume at the onset of hyoid anterosuperior movement using ES were significantly smaller than those in control swallows (p = 0.012, p = 0.015) in the upper pharynx but not significantly different in lower pharynx. Minimum pharyngeal volume was sustained for a longer time when ES was used compared to control swallows in both upper and lower pharynx (upper p = 0.016, lower p = 0.027). Onset of velopharyngeal closure was earlier when comparing ES and control swallows (p = 0.04). Termination of all events was significantly delayed when the ES was used (p < 0.05). Changes in the upper pharyngeal volume and in the onset of velopharyngeal closure suggest earlier pharyngeal constriction when using the ES. Longer pharyngeal obliteration and prolonged termination of velopharyngeal closure and epiglottis inversion suggest the prolonged pharyngeal constriction during the ES. These findings suggest the ES can be useful for improving the efficiency of swallowing.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Speech and Hearing