Background: Hemorrhage control for pelvic fractures remains challenging. There are several kinds of hemostatic interventions, including angiography/angioembolization (AG/AE), external fixation (EF), and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). However, no large studies have been conducted for the comparative review of each intervention. In this study, we examined the usage trend of therapeutic interventions in Japan for patients with pelvic fractures in shock and the influence of these interventions on mortality. Methods: Data of adult patients with pelvic fracture who were in shock were obtained from the Japanese Trauma Data Bank (2004–2014). The primary endpoint was the influence of each intervention (AG/AE, EF, and REBOA) on in-hospital mortality. We also investigated the frequency of each intervention. Results: A total of 3149 patients met all our inclusion criteria. Specifically, 1131 (35.9%), 496 (15.8%), and 256 (8.1%) patients underwent AG, EF, and REBOA interventions, respectively. Therapeutic AE was performed in 690 patients who underwent AG (61.0%). The overall mortality rate was 31.4%. Multiple regression analysis identified that AG/AE (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.52–0.80) and EF (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58–0.98) were significantly associated with survival, whereas REBOA (OR 4.17, 95% CI 3.00–5.82) was significantly associated with worse outcomes. Conclusions: In Japan, patients with pelvic fracture who were in shock had high mortality rates. AG/AE and EF were associated with decreased mortality. AG may benefit from the early detection of arterial bleeding, leading to decreased mortality of patients with pelvic fracture in shock.
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