Background: The increase in the success rate of peripheral intravenous catheterization against a difficult intravenous access (DIVA) using ultrasonography is reported; however, reports related to the effectiveness of using ultrasonography in increasing the success rate for visible and palpable veins is limited. Furthermore, according to a previous study, first attempt success in catheterization contributes to low catheter failure incidence. Thus, we developed a catheterization method using ultrasonography for peripheral veins including visible and palpable veins. This study investigates the effectiveness of ultrasonography use in improving the success rate of catheterization and preventing the catheter failure for peripheral veins including visible and palpable veins. Methods: Adult inpatients were recruited. Trained nurses inserted intravenous catheters using ultrasonography. Ultrasonography was used for all vein assessment, target vein selection, and puncturing (i.e. target point selection and/or needle guidance), regardless of the target vein’s visibility or palpability. Catheters with over a 24-h dwelling time were followed for catheter failure incidence. Results: Thirty-one patients were recruited, and they required 34 catheterizations. Total number of catheterization attempts were 39. Of the peripheral veins, 51.3% (20/39) were visible and palpable, 48.7% (19/39) were DIVA. The rate of successful intravenous cannulation was 29 of 34 (85.3%) after one attempt and 4 of 34 (total 97.0%) after two attempts. The catheterization failure incidence was 3.2% (1/31) in the catheter that had an over 24-h dwelling time. Conclusions: Using ultrasonography to all target veins might have contributed to higher success rates of catheterization and extremely low incidence of catheter failure based on objective findings. Selecting the vein with larger diameters and healthy tissue as puncture point and showing center of vessel lumen clearly using ultrasonography might have been contributed the results.
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