Effectiveness of Unguided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Three Good Things Exercise for Insomnia: 3-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

Daisuke Sato, Yoichi Sekizawa, Chihiro Sutoh, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Sho Okawa, Motohisa Hirose, Ryo Takemura, Eiji Shimizu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The treatment of insomnia with sleep medication causes problems such as long-term use, dependence, and significant economic losses, including medical expenses. Evidence-based lifestyle guidance is required to improve insomnia symptoms not only in person but also in easy-to-use web-based formats. Objective: This study aims to clarify whether unguided internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) or the Three Good Things (TGT) exercise, both administered as self-help internet interventions without email support, could improve insomnia symptoms compared with a waiting list control (WLC) group. Methods: A 4-week program was implemented, and participants were randomly allocated to 1 of the 3 groups. The primary outcome measure was the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire (PSQI) score at 4 weeks compared with baseline. Results: Of the 21,394 individuals invited to participate, 312 (1.46%) met the eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups. Of these 312 individuals, 270 (86.5%; ICBT 79/270, 29.3%; TGT 88/270, 32.6%; and WLC 103/270, 38.1%) completed a postintervention survey at 4 and 8 weeks. The adjusted mean changes of the primary outcome measure (PSQI) in the ICBT (−1.56, 95% CI −2.52 to −0.59; P<.001) and TGT (−1.15, 95% CI −2.08 to −0.23; P=.002) groups at 4 weeks from baseline showed a significant improvement compared with the WLC group. The adjusted mean changes in the secondary outcome measures of sleep onset latency, total sleep time, Athens Insomnia Scale score, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score at 4 weeks from baseline, as well as in the PSQI at 8 weeks from baseline, showed significant improvement for ICBT. Moreover, total sleep time, Athens Insomnia Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores at 4 weeks from baseline showed a significant improvement in the TGT group compared with the WLC group. Conclusions: A total of 4 weeks of unguided ICBT and TGT exercises improved insomnia.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere28747
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Volume24
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 02-2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health Informatics

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