Ultraviolet B irradiation has been believed to decrease or impair the activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the skin. It has been recently reported that two isozymes of SOD, namely copper-zinc SOD (Cu-Zn SOD) and manganese SOD (Mn SOD), exist in mammalian cells and that the two enzymes play different roles in living systems. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in SOD activities and protein levels in cultured human keratinocytes after acute UVB irradiation. In addition, the protein levels of Cu-Zn SOD and Mn SOD were quantified separately. A single exposure to UVB irradiation produced an increase in SOD activity and protein level that peaked immediately after UVB irradiation, after which a decline was observed, with subsequent recovery to baseline levels 24 h after irradiation. In individual assays of Mn SOD and Cu-Zn SOD, the amount of Mn SOD protein decreased and then gradually recovered 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the amount of Cu-Zn SOD protein increased immediately after UVB irradiation, and then gradually declined. To evaluate the mechanisms of these changes, we examined the effects of the cytokines, interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which can be secreted from keratinocytes after UVB irradiation, on the SOD activity and protein levels in keratinocytes. Interleukin-1α and TNF-α enhanced both the SOD activity and protein level of Mn SOD, while these cytokines had no effect on Cu-Zn SOD protein levels in cultured human keratinocytes after incubation for 24 h. Furthermore, when neutralizing antibodies against IL-1α and TNF-α were added separately or together to the culture medium before UVB irradiation, the recovery of total SOD activity and Mn SOD protein level were markedly inhibited 24 h after irradiation. Our results suggest that significant increases in SOD activity and protein level occur as a cutaneous antioxidant defense mechanism that protects against the cytotoxicity as a result of UVB irradiation, and that this increase in SOD is attributed to Cu-Zn SOD. The Cu-Zn SOD and Mn SOD protein levels changed in a different manner after UVB irradiation. The former may participate in an early phase and the latter in a late phase defense mechanism directed against oxidant cytotoxicity through UVB irradiation. In addition, the recovery of Mn SOD to baseline levels 24 h after UVB irradiation seems to be mediated through cytokines such as IL-1α and TNF-α, which are secreted from keratinocytes.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Photochemistry and Photobiology|
|Publication status||Published - 04-1997|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry