Effects of hypernatremia on the microglia

Sachiho Fuse, Haruki Fujisawa, Naoya Murao, Naoko Iwata, Takashi Watanabe, Yusuke Seino, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Atsushi Suzuki, Yoshihisa Sugimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Signs and symptoms of hypernatremia largely indicate central nervous system dysfunction. Acute hypernatremia can cause demyelinating lesions similar to that observed in osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). We have previously demonstrated that microglia accumulate in ODS lesions and minocycline protects against ODS by inhibiting microglial activation. However, the direct effect of rapid rise in the sodium concentrations on microglia is largely unknown. In addition, the effect of chronic hypernatremia on microglia also remains elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of acute (6 or 24 h) and chronic (the extracellular sodium concentration was increased gradually for at least 7 days) high sodium concentrations on microglia using the microglial cell line, BV-2. We found that both acute and chronic high sodium concentrations increase NOS2 expression and nitric oxide (NO) production. We also demonstrated that the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells-5 (NFAT5) is increased by high sodium concentrations. Furthermore, NFAT5 knockdown suppressed NOS2 expression and NO production. We also demonstrated that high sodium concentrations decreased intracellular Ca2+ concentration and an inhibitor of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, suppressed a decrease in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and NOS2 expression and NO production induced by high sodium concentrations. Furthermore, minocycline inhibited NOS2 expression and NO production induced by high sodium concentrations. These in vitro data suggest that microglial activity in response to high sodium concentrations is regulated by NFAT5 and Ca2+ efflux through NCX and is suppressed by minocycline.

Original languageEnglish
Article number171267
Publication statusPublished - 09-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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