Polyphenols have been examined for their beneficial effects on health, particularly in rodents, but their lifelong effects are unclear. Lemons (Citrus limon), containing lemon polyphenols (LPP), are widely consumed but the effects of LPP on aging are unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of LPP on aging such as aging-related scores, locomotor activity, cognitive functions, and intestinal microbiome using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 (SAMP1) and senescence-accelerated resistant mouse 1 (SAMR1). All mice had ad libitum access to water (P1_water group, SAMR1) or 0.1% LPP (P1_LPP group). In the P1_LPP group, LPP intake prolonged the lifespan by approximately 3 weeks and delayed increases in aging-related scores (e.g., periophthalmic lesions) and locomotor atrophy. The P1_water group showed large changes in the intestinal microbiome structure, while the R1 and P1_LPP groups did not. The phylum Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes, which is associated with obesity, in the P1_water group was significantly lower and higher than that in the P1_LPP and R1 groups, respectively. Although the relative abundance of Lactobacillus significantly increased in both P1 groups with aging, the P1_LPP group showed a significantly lower increase than the P1_water group. Thus, lifelong intake of LPP may have anti-aging effects on both phenotypes and the intestinal environment.
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