Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between prophylactic antibiotic administration (PAA) and postoperative infection after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion in patients with invasive bladder cancer. Methods: Forty-nine consecutive cases were analyzed prospectively. Postoperative infections were categorized as surgical site infection (SSI) and remote infection (RI). We used the antibiotics tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) as PAA (48 h). Results: A total of 18 (36.7%) patients had postoperative infections, 4/18 (22.2%) patients had wound infections, and 12/18 (66.7%) patients had RI. In the risk factor study for SSI and RI occurrences, we found that the surgical time was significantly shorter in the non-infection group (<italic>p</italic> = 0.031). Taken together, these results suggest that TAZ/PIPC with shorter PAA duration (48 h) might lead to a lower rate of postoperative infections. Conclusions: Our data showed that PAA with TAZ/PIPC with a shorter duration PAA (48 h) might be recommended for RC with urinary diversion. We found that the surgical time was significantly shorter in the non-infection group. A prospective study based on our data is desirable to establish or revise PAA strategy for prophylactic medication to prevent postoperative infection after RC with urinary diversion.
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