Background: Although obscure gastrointestinal bleeding cannot be detected by colonoscopy or upper endoscopy, wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is capable of imaging it. Few data are available on medical therapy for patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small-intestinal mucosal injuries. The aim of this study was to compare prevention by rebamipide and placebo of NSAID-induced smallintestinal injury in healthy subjects. Methods: Ten healthy subjects who provided written informed consent were enrolled. Rebamipide or placebo plus diclofenac was administered with omeprazole for 7 days, and for an additional 7-day period with treatments reversed in the same subjects, with a 4-week washout period between treatments. VCE of the small intestine was performed four times, before and after each of the two study periods. Results: The number of subjects with small-intestinal mucosal injuries was higher in the placebo group (8/10) than in the rebamipide group (2/10) (P = 0.023). Two cases of ulcer and one of bleeding were observed in the placebo group, while no ulcer or bleeding was observed in the rebamipide group. Conclusions: Rebamipide had significantly higher efficacy than placebo in preventing NSAID-induced small-intestinal mucosal injury.
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