Endoscopic management of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma

Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Takuya Ishikawa, Yasuyuki Mizutani, Tadashi Iida, Takeshi Yamamura, Naomi Kakushima, Kazuhiro Furukawa, Masanao Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Endoscopic management for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC) is evolving toward more accurate diagnosis and safer drainage. In imaging, it is important to diagnose the entire lesion using multidetector-row computed tomography to determine resectability and optimal surgical planning, followed by local diagnosis using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Video peroral cholangioscopy and probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy have been newly introduced as diagnostic imaging methods and are being applied clinically. In transpapillary forceps biopsy for PHCC diagnosis, the location in the bile duct (for mapping biopsy) and the number of biopsy samples should be determined depending on resectability, the morphological type, and future surgical planning. Preoperative drainage has shifted from percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage to endoscopic nasobiliary drainage given the possibility of seeding metastasis. In addition, considering potential patient discomfort from a nasal tube, the usefulness of the placement of a plastic stent above the papilla (inside stent) as a bridging therapy for surgery has been reported. For drainage of unresectable PHCC, the improved prognosis due to advances in chemotherapy has necessitated a strategy that accounts for reintervention. Thus, in addition to uncovered self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS), exchangeable slim fully covered SEMS and inside stents have started to be used. In addition to the conventional transpapillary approach, an endoscopic ultrasonography-guided approach has been introduced, and a combination of both methods has also been proposed. To improve the quality of life and prognosis of PHCC patients, endoscopists need to understand and be able to use the various methods of endoscopic management for PHCC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1147-1156
Number of pages10
JournalDigestive Endoscopy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 09-2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology


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