Introduction: We aimed to compare the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound elastography (EUS-EG) with that of magnifying chromoendoscopy (MCE) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the diagnosis of the depth of invasion in colorectal neoplasms. This is an important clinical issue as the depth of invasion is associated with the risk of metastasis. Methods: Consecutive patients with suspected superficial colorectal neoplasms, evaluated by MCE, EUS, and EUS-EG, for whom endoscopic submucosal dissection was considered, were enrolled in 2018 (derivation study) and in 2019-2020 (validation study). The primary clinical endpoint was the diagnostic yield differentiating intramucosal and shallow submucosal neoplasms from deep submucosal (dSM) and advanced colorectal cancers. In addition, inter- and intra-observer agreements of the elastic score of colorectal neoplasm (ES-CRN) were evaluated by 2 expert and 2 non-expert endoscopists. Results: Thirty-one (33 lesions) and 50 (55 lesions) patients were enrolled in the derivation and validation studies, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values, and accuracy of assessment of the depth of submucosal or deeper invasion in the derivation and validation groups were as follows: EUS-EG, 100/88.2/86.7/100/93.3% and 77.8/86.1/73.7/88.6/83.3%; MCE, 66.7/94.4/90.9/77.3/81.8% and 84.2/91.4/84.2/91.4/88.9%; and EUS, 93.3/77.8/77.8/93.3/84.8% and 89.5/65.7/58.6/92.0/74.1%, respectively. For the 2 expert endoscopists, interobserver agreement for the ES-CRN (first and second assessments) in the derivation group was 0.84 and 0.78, respectively; these values were 0.73 and 0.49, respectively, for the 2 non-expert endoscopists. Discussion/Conclusion: All 3 modalities presented similar diagnostic yield. Inter- and intra-observer agreements of the ES-CRN were substantial, even for non-expert endoscopists. Therefore, EUS-EG may be a useful modality in determining the depth of invasion in colorectal neoplasms.
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