Objectives: In addition to morphology, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities should be assessed during diagnosis and subclassification of lymphoproliferative disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) using a standard 19-gauge needle for diagnosis and subclassification of lymphoma, assessing the feasibility of immunohistological, flow cytometric, and cytogenetic assessments. Methods: Two hundred forty patients with suspected lymphoma were referred for EUS-FNAB to our quaternary EUS center between June 2005 and December 2010. EUS-FNAB using a conventional 19-gauge needle was attempted for all patients, followed by histological assessments including immunohistological staining, flow cytometry, and cytogenetic analysis (G-band karyotyping). Among the patients, 152 were ultimately diagnosed with lymphoma. The primary outcome measure of this study was the sensitivity of histological assessment, including immunohistological staining, flow cytometry, and G-band karyotyping, for diagnosis and subclassification of lymphoma. Results: Among the 152 patients ultimately diagnosed with lymphoma, 147 patients (96.7%) were diagnosed by EUS-FNAB, and classification in accordance with the WHO (World Health Organization) system was also possible for 135 patients (88.8%) on the basis of histological findings, including immunohistological staining. Flow cytometry showed abnormal or unusual cell populations in 121 (79.6%) of the 152 patients diagnosed with lymphoma, and in 114 (90.5%) of the 126 patients diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma. Specific cytogenetic abnormalities were detected in 21 (13.8%) of the lymphoma patients. Conclusions: EUS-FNAB using a standard 19-gauge needle has high diagnostic value for lymphoma. Immunophenotyping is usually possible, while cytogenetic abnormalities can be identified in a relatively limited number of patients.
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