Energy analysis reveals the negative effect of delays in passive movement mirror therapy

Abbas Orand, Hiroyuki Miyasaka, Yutaka Tomita, Genichi Tanino, Shigeru Sonoda

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Wavelet transform energy analyses of the mean and standard error of the electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) of eight subjects were investigated in passive movement mirror therapies with no delay (in-phase) and with delay (out-of-phase) situations in two frequency bands of 7.81-15.62 and 15.62-31.25Hz. It was found that the energy levels of EEG at electrode C4 in the in-phase situation were lower than those in out-of-phase situations, while the energy levels of flexor and extensor forearm muscle groups were larger. With two exceptions, this pattern could be seen in all other subjects. The difference between the in-phase (D0) and out-of-phase situations (D025 and D05) for the frequency range of 15.62-31.25Hz was found to be significant at a significance level of 0.05 (paired t-test analysis). The respective elevation and decline of EEG and EGM with regard to the increase of the delay may indicate the necessity for synchronization of passive movement and mirror therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-77
Number of pages6
JournalSomatosensory and Motor Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 06-2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Sensory Systems


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