Estimation of the external knee adduction moment during gait using an inertial measurement unit in patients with knee osteoarthritis

Yu Iwama, Kengo Harato, Shu Kobayashi, Yasuo Niki, Naomichi Ogihara, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Takeo Nagura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Although the external knee adduction moment (KAM) during gait was shown to be a quantitative parameter of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), it requires expensive equipment and a dedicated large space to measure. Therefore, it becomes a major reason to limit KAM measurement in a clinical environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate KAM using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) during gait in patients with knee OA. A total of 22 medial knee OA patients (44 knee joints) performed conventional gait analysis using three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system. At the same time, we attached commercial IMUs to six body segments (sternum, pelvis, both thighs, and both shanks), and IMU signals during gait were recorded synchronized with the motion capture system. The peak-to-peak difference of acceleration in the lateral/medial axis immediately after heel contact was defined as the thrust acceleration (TA). We hypothesized that TA would represent the lateral thrust of the knee during the stance phase and correlate with the first peak of KAM. The relationship between the peak KAM and TA of pelvis (R = 0.52, p < 0.001), shanks (R = 0.57, p < 0.001) and thighs (R = 0.49, p = 0.001) showed a significant correlation. The root mean square error (RMSE) of linear regression models of pelvis, shanks, and thighs to estimate KAM were 0.082, 0.079, and 0.084 Nm/kg*m, respectively. Our newly established parameter TA showed a moderate correlation with conventional KAM. The current study confirmed our hypothesis that a single IMU would predict conventional KAM during gait. Since KAM is known as an indicator for prognosis and severity of knee OA, this new parameter has the potential to become an accessible predictor for medial knee OA instead of KAM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1418
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 02-02-2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Estimation of the external knee adduction moment during gait using an inertial measurement unit in patients with knee osteoarthritis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this