Background/Aim: High serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels predict mortality independent of bone metabolism parameters and liver function test results in patients on hemodialysis. The relationship between serum ALP at dialysis initiation and mortality during maintenance dialysis is unknown; therefore, we aimed to identify an association. Methods: This multicenter, prospective cohort study analyzed 1,213 patients registered in the Aichi Cohort Study of Prognosis in Patients Newly Initiated into Dialysis from October 2011 to September 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on serum ALP levels. All-cause mortality and incidences of cardiovascular events after dialysis initiation were compared using the log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. We performed stratified analysis based on parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Results: During the follow-up, 109 (18.0%) and 86 (14.1%) patients died in the high ALP group (232 ≥IU/L; High ALP group) and low ALP group (232 <IU/L; Low ALP group), respectively. All-cause mortality was significantly higher in the High ALP group than in the Low ALP group (p = 0.014). The serum ALP level was significantly correlated with the all-cause mortality rate (hazard ratio = 1.17 per 100 IU/L increase of ALP, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.24, p < 0.001). The all-cause mortality rate was significantly higher in the High ALP group among patients with low (<150 pg/mL) or normal (150-300 pg/mL) PTH levels (p = 0.012 and p = 0.005, respectively) than in the Low ALP group; there was no significant difference among patients with a high (≥300 pg/mL) PTH level (p = 1.000). Conclusion: The serum ALP level at dialysis initiation is associated with all-cause mortality during maintenance dialysis.
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