Exposure to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone accelerates malignant progression of lung cancer cells through up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase 1B10.

Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Yoshifumi Morikawa, Mariko Haga, Satoshi Endo, Midori Soda, Keiko Yamamura, Ossama El-Kabbani, Kazuo Tajima, Akira Ikari, Akira Hara

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29 Citations (Scopus)


Inhalation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust, exerts fatal damage against a variety of cells involved in respiratory function. Here, we show that treatment with high concentrations of 9,10-PQ evokes apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, 9,10-PQ at its concentrations of 2 and 5 μM elevated the potentials for proliferation, invasion, metastasis and tumorigenesis, all of which were almost completely inhibited by addition of an antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine, inferring a crucial role of ROS in the overgrowth and malignant progression of lung cancer cells. Comparison of mRNA expression levels of six aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells advocated up-regulation of AKR1B10 as a major cause contributing to the lung cancer malignancy. In support of this, the elevation of invasive, metastatic and tumorigenic activities in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells was significantly abolished by the addition of a selective AKR1B10 inhibitor oleanolic acid. Intriguingly, zymographic and real-time PCR analyses revealed remarkable increases in secretion and expression, respectively, of matrix metalloproteinase 2 during the 9,10-PQ treatment, and suggested that the AKR1B10 up-regulation and resultant activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are predominant mechanisms underlying the metalloproteinase induction. In addition, HPLC analysis and cytochrome c reduction assay in in vitro 9,10-PQ reduction by AKR1B10 demonstrated that the enzyme catalyzes redox-cycling of this quinone, by which ROS are produced. Collectively, these results suggest that AKR1B10 is a key regulator involved in overgrowth and malignant progression of the lung cancer cells through ROS production due to 9,10-PQ redox-cycling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-189
Number of pages10
JournalToxicology and applied pharmacology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15-07-2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


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