Factors Associated with the Local Increase of Skin Temperature, ‘Hotspot,’ of Callus in Diabetic Foot: A Cross-Sectional Study

Qi Qin, Makoto Oe, Yumiko Ohashi, Yuko Shimojima, Mikie Imafuku, Misako Dai, Gojiro Nakagami, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Seon Ae Yeo, Hiromi Sanada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Increased local skin temperature (hotspot) on a callus site as detected by thermography is a well-known precursor of diabetic foot ulcers. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with callus hotspots in order to predict the risk of callus hotspots and then provide information for specific interventions. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,007 patients’ data from a diabetic foot prevention clinic between April 2008 and March 2020 were used. Data regarding patients’ characteristics, foot calluses, and callus hotspots were collected and analyzed. Callus and callus hotspot were confirmed from foot photos and thermographs, respectively. A callus hotspot was defined as a relative increase in temperature compared to the skin surrounding the callus on the thermograph. Plantar pressure was measured with a pressure distribution measurement system. A generalized linear mixed model was used to identify the factors associated with callus hotspots. Results: Among the 2,014 feet, 28.5% had calluses, and 18.5% of feet with calluses had callus hotspots. The factors associated with callus hotspots were number of calluses (Adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.540, P =.003), static forefoot peak plantar pressure (SFPPP) (aOR: 1.008, P =.001), and body mass index (aOR: 0.912, P =.029). Conclusions: Patients with a higher SFPPP were more likely to have callus hotspots suggesting that SFPPP might contribute to callus inflammation. SFPPP has the potential to be a useful predictor of callus hotspots in people with diabetes and at the same time provide information for off-loading interventions to prevent callus hotspots.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1174-1182
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 09-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering


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