RATIONALE: Invasive community-acquired infections, including pyogenic liver abscesses, caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) strains have been well recognized worldwide. Among these, sporadic hvKp-related community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute-onset, rapidly progressing disease that can likely turn fatal, if left untreated. However, the clinical diagnosis of hvKp infection remains challenging due to its non-specific symptoms, lack of awareness regarding this disease, and no consensus definition of hvKp. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 39-year-old man presented with high-grade fever and sudden-onset chest pain. Laboratory testing revealed an elevated white blood cell count of 11,600 cells/μl and C-reactive protein level (>32 mg/dl). A chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed a focal consolidation in the left lower lung field. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis of fulminant CAP caused by a hvKp K2-ST86 strain was made based upon multilocus sequencing typing (MLST). INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with ampicillin/sulbactam. OUTCOMES: The pneumonia became fulminant. Despite intensive care and treatment, he eventually died 15.5 hours after admission. LESSONS: This is the first case of fatal fulminant CAP caused by a hvKp K2-ST86 strain reported in Japan. MLST was extremely useful for providing a definitive diagnosis for this infection. Thus, we propose that a biomarker-based approach should be considered even for an exploratory diagnosis of CAP related to hvKp infection.
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