Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of postoperative concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) in patients with high-risk early-stage cervical cancer who were treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods. From July 2001 to September 2005, CCRT was performed in 37 patients who had undergone radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection at Nagoya University Hospital. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin (70mg/m2 on day 1) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 700mg/m2 per day on days 1-4) every 4 weeks for a total of three cycles. Pelvic radiotherapy was started concurrently with the first cycle of chemotherapy. The radiation dose was 45 Gy in 25 fractions. A nonrandomized control group of 52 patients who had undergone radiation therapy alone after radical hysterectomy between 1991 and 2000 served for historical comparison. Results. In the CCRT group, the incidences of grade 3/4 toxicities were 24.3% for neutropenia, 8.1% for nausea and vomiting, and 18.9% for diarrhea. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates in the CCRT group and control group were 89.2% and 69.2%, respectively (P = 0.0392). Conclusion. This study showed that adjuvant CCRT with cisplatin and 5-FU could be safely performed and improved the prognosis in Japanese patients with high-risk early-stage cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy.
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