A 70-year-old Japanese woman who was treated for interstitial pneumonia (IP) with steroid therapy developed cholecystitis. A serial computed-tomography (CT) imaging showed irregular thickness of the fundus wall of the gallbladder and two rapidly enlarged lymph nodes (LNs): number (no.) 12 and no. 8a. Positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan showed an abnormal uptake at the site of the gallbladder tumor and those LNs. We subsequently performed open radical cholecystectomy and LN dissection of the no. 12 and 8a LNs, following complete remission of IP. The histology showed gallbladder adenocarcinoma, with a single focus of neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) component of less than 30%; Ki-67 index > 80%, synaptophysin (Syn) (+), chromogranin A (CgA) (+), and clusters of differentiation (CD) 56 (+) (T2bN1M0, Stage IIIB). LN no. 8a was diffusely metastatic with NEC components. LN no. 12c, which was adjacent to the cystic duct, revealed necrosis without apparent tumor cells, but was highly suspicious for tumor necrosis. The final diagnosis was adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with focal NEC (< 30%), which did not meet the criteria for mixed neuroendocrine–non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN). Postoperatively, she completed 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy for NEC (Cisplatin plus Etoposide), and no recurrence was observed after 12 months.
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