Purpose: To investigate the 4-year outcome of aflibercept treatment using a treat-and-extend (TAE) regimen for recurrent neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design: Retrospective observational study. Methods: Data of eyes with recurrent AMD previously treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents or photodynamic therapy and had started aflibercept treatment using a TAE regimen for the first time were collected. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intervals of treatments, the presence of exudation, central foveal thickness (CFT), and central choroidal thickness (CCT) were analyzed. Results: Of 47 consecutive eyes, 30 of the 47 eyes completed a 4-year follow-up. The mean BCVA (logMAR) was sustained over the 4 years (0.37 at baseline, 0.36 at 1 year, 0.36 at 2 years, 0.41 at 3 years, and 0.43 at 4 years, P = 0.21). Of the 30 eyes that completed the follow-up, BCVA of two eyes deteriorated by 0.3 logMAR or more at 4 years. At 4 years, 67% of eyes had extended treatment intervals to > 8 weeks, and 47% of eyes had extended intervals to > 12 weeks. Exudative changes in the macula, seen in all eyes at baseline, were only seen in 50% of the eyes at 4 years. The mean CFT and CCT decreased significantly at 4 years from 332 μm to 248 μm and from 218 μm to 183 μm, respectively. Conclusion: In clinical settings, aflibercept treatment using a TAE regimen may successfully maintain visual acuity for up to 4 years even in recurrent cases of AMD.
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