Background: In the LYM-3002 study, the efficacy and safety of frontline bortezomib plus rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone (VR-CAP) and rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) were compared in transplant-ineligible patients with untreated, newly diagnosed, mantle cell lymphoma. We report the final overall survival and safety outcomes for patients in the long-term follow-up phase after the primary progression-free-survival endpoint was met. Methods: LYM-3002 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study done at 128 clinical centres in 28 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Adult patients with confirmed stage II–IV previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or less, who were ineligible for bone marrow transplantation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive six or eight 21-day cycles of VR-CAP (intravenous rituximab 375 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and bortezomib 1·3 mg/m2, plus oral prednisone 100 mg/m2) or R-CHOP (intravenous vincristine 1·4 mg/m2 [2 mg maximum], rituximab 375 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, and doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, plus oral prednisone 100 mg/m2). Randomisation was done according to a computer-generated randomisation schedule prepared by the sponsor; permuted blocks central randomisation was used (block size of 4), and was stratified by International Prognostic Index score and disease stage at diagnosis. The primary endpoint of this final analysis was overall survival, which was analysed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00722137, and is closed to new participants with follow-up completed. Findings: Between May 22, 2008, and Dec 5, 2011, 487 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. 268 patients (140 in the VR-CAP group and 128 in the R-CHOP group) were included in the follow-up analysis, which included patients with data available after the primary analysis clinical cutoff date of Dec 2, 2013. After median follow-up of 82·0 months (IQR 74·1–94·2), median overall survival was significantly longer in the VR-CAP group than in the R-CHOP group (90·7 months [95% CI 71·4 to not estimable] vs 55·7 months [47·2 to 68·9]; hazard ratio 0·66 [95% CI 0·51–0·85]; p=0·001). Three new adverse events were reported since the primary analysis cutoff (one each of grade 4 lung adenocarcinoma and grade 4 gastric cancer in the VR-CAP group, and one case of grade 2 pneumonia in the R-CHOP group). 103 (42%) of 243 patients in the VR-CAP group, and 138 (57%) of 244 in the R-CHOP group died; the most common cause of death was progressive disease. Interpretations: Compared with R-CHOP, VR-CAP was associated with significantly longer survival, and had a manageable and expected safety profile. Our results support further assessment of VR-CAP in patients with previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma. Funding: Janssen Research & Development.
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