Drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) is a common adverse event that is associated with both antiretroviral (ARV) and anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATD). Moreover, the genetic variations predisposing ARV- and ARV-ATD-induced liver toxicity in African populations are not well investigated, despite the two diseases being the major global health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and replication study to identify the genetic variants linked to the risk of developing DIH due to ARV drugs alone, and ARV-ATD co-treatment in Ethiopian HIV-positive patients. Treatment-naïve newly diagnosed HIV patients (n = 719) with or without tuberculosis (TB) co-infection were enrolled prospectively and received efavirenz-based ARV therapy with or without rifampicin-based short course ATD, respectively. Whole-genome genotyping was performed by using the Illumina Omni Express Exome Bead Chip genotyping array with 951,117 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on a total of 41 cases of DIH, and 452 people without DIH (treatment tolerants). The replication study was carried out for 100 SNPs with the lowest p-values (top SNPs) by using an independent cohort consisting of 18 DIH cases and 208 treatment tolerants. We identified a missense SNP rs199650082 (2756G→A, R919Q, p = 1.4 × 10-6, odds ratio [OR] = 18.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.1-46.9) in an endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus signaling-1 (ERN1) gene on chromosome 17 to be associated with DIH in the ARV-only cohort. In the ARV-ATD co-treatment groups, rs4842407, a long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) transcript variant on chromosome 12, was associated with DIH (p = 5.3 × 10-7, OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.8-10.3). These genetic variants that are putatively associated with DIH due to ARV drugs alone and ARV-ATD co-treatment establish a foundation for future personalized medicine in people with HIV and TB and call for larger studies in independent populations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology