Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in males throughout the world1, and its incidence is increasing in Asian countries. We carried out a genome-wide association study and replication study using 4,584 Japanese men with prostate cancer and 8,801 control subjects. From the thirty-one associated SNPs reported in previous genome-wide association studies in European populations, we confirmed the association of nine SNPs at P < 1.0 x 10-7 and ten SNPs at P < 0.05 in the Japanese population. The remaining 12 SNPs showed no association (P > 0.05). In addition, we report here five new loci for prostate cancer susceptibility, at 5p15 (λ -corrected probability PGC = 3.9 x 10-18), GPRC6A/RFX6 (PGC = 1.6 x 10-12), 13q22 (PGC = 2.8 x 10-9), C2orf43 (PGC = 7.5 x 10-8) and FOXP4 (PGC = 7.6 x 10-8). These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of prostate carcinogenesis and also highlight the genetic heterogeneity of prostate cancer susceptibility among different ethnic populations.
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