GLIM Criteria for the Diagnosis of Malnutrition: A Consensus Report From the Global Clinical Nutrition Community

Gordon L. Jensen, Tommy Cederholm, M. Isabel T.D. Correia, M. Christina Gonzalez, Ryoji Fukushima, Takashi Higashiguchi, Gertrudis Adrianza de Baptista, Rocco Barazzoni, Renée Blaauw, Andrew J.S. Coats, Adriana Crivelli, David C. Evans, Leah Gramlich, Vanessa Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Heather Keller, Luisito Llido, Ainsley Malone, Kris M. Mogensen, John E. Morley, Maurizio MuscaritoliIbolya Nyulasi, Matthias Pirlich, Veeradej Pisprasert, Marian de van der Schueren, Soranit Siltharm, Pierre Singer, Kelly A. Tappenden, Nicolas Velasco, Dan L. Waitzberg, Preyanuj Yamwong, Jianchun Yu, Charlene Compher, Andre Van Gossum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: This initiative aims to build a global consensus around core diagnostic criteria for malnutrition in adults in clinical settings. Methods: The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) was convened by several of the major global clinical nutrition societies. Empirical consensus was reached through a series of face-to-face meetings, telephone conferences, and e-mail communications. Results: A 2-step approach for the malnutrition diagnosis was selected, that is, first screening to identify at risk status by the use of any validated screening tool, and second, assessment for diagnosis and grading the severity of malnutrition. The malnutrition criteria for consideration were retrieved from existing approaches for screening and assessment. Potential criteria were subjected to a ballot among GLIM participants that selected 3 phenotypic criteria (non-volitional weight loss, low body mass index, and reduced muscle mass) and 2 etiologic criteria (reduced food intake or assimilation, and inflammation or disease burden). To diagnose malnutrition at least 1 phenotypic criterion and 1 etiologic criterion should be present. Phenotypic metrics for grading severity are proposed. It is recommended that the etiologic criteria be used to guide intervention and anticipated outcomes. The recommended approach supports classification of malnutrition into four etiology-related diagnosis categories. Conclusions: A consensus scheme for diagnosing malnutrition in adults in clinical settings on a global scale is proposed. Next steps are to secure endorsements from leading nutrition professional societies, to identify overlaps with syndromes like cachexia and sarcopenia, and to promote dissemination, validation studies, and feedback. The construct should be re-considered every 3–5 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-40
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Volume43
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-2019

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Malnutrition
Consensus
Sarcopenia
Cachexia
Validation Studies
Postal Service
varespladib methyl
Telephone
Weight Loss
Body Mass Index
Eating
Communication
Inflammation
Muscles

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Jensen, Gordon L. ; Cederholm, Tommy ; Correia, M. Isabel T.D. ; Gonzalez, M. Christina ; Fukushima, Ryoji ; Higashiguchi, Takashi ; de Baptista, Gertrudis Adrianza ; Barazzoni, Rocco ; Blaauw, Renée ; Coats, Andrew J.S. ; Crivelli, Adriana ; Evans, David C. ; Gramlich, Leah ; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa ; Keller, Heather ; Llido, Luisito ; Malone, Ainsley ; Mogensen, Kris M. ; Morley, John E. ; Muscaritoli, Maurizio ; Nyulasi, Ibolya ; Pirlich, Matthias ; Pisprasert, Veeradej ; de van der Schueren, Marian ; Siltharm, Soranit ; Singer, Pierre ; Tappenden, Kelly A. ; Velasco, Nicolas ; Waitzberg, Dan L. ; Yamwong, Preyanuj ; Yu, Jianchun ; Compher, Charlene ; Van Gossum, Andre. / GLIM Criteria for the Diagnosis of Malnutrition : A Consensus Report From the Global Clinical Nutrition Community. In: Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 43, No. 1. pp. 32-40.
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abstract = "Background: This initiative aims to build a global consensus around core diagnostic criteria for malnutrition in adults in clinical settings. Methods: The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) was convened by several of the major global clinical nutrition societies. Empirical consensus was reached through a series of face-to-face meetings, telephone conferences, and e-mail communications. Results: A 2-step approach for the malnutrition diagnosis was selected, that is, first screening to identify at risk status by the use of any validated screening tool, and second, assessment for diagnosis and grading the severity of malnutrition. The malnutrition criteria for consideration were retrieved from existing approaches for screening and assessment. Potential criteria were subjected to a ballot among GLIM participants that selected 3 phenotypic criteria (non-volitional weight loss, low body mass index, and reduced muscle mass) and 2 etiologic criteria (reduced food intake or assimilation, and inflammation or disease burden). To diagnose malnutrition at least 1 phenotypic criterion and 1 etiologic criterion should be present. Phenotypic metrics for grading severity are proposed. It is recommended that the etiologic criteria be used to guide intervention and anticipated outcomes. The recommended approach supports classification of malnutrition into four etiology-related diagnosis categories. Conclusions: A consensus scheme for diagnosing malnutrition in adults in clinical settings on a global scale is proposed. Next steps are to secure endorsements from leading nutrition professional societies, to identify overlaps with syndromes like cachexia and sarcopenia, and to promote dissemination, validation studies, and feedback. The construct should be re-considered every 3–5 years.",
author = "Jensen, {Gordon L.} and Tommy Cederholm and Correia, {M. Isabel T.D.} and Gonzalez, {M. Christina} and Ryoji Fukushima and Takashi Higashiguchi and {de Baptista}, {Gertrudis Adrianza} and Rocco Barazzoni and Ren{\'e}e Blaauw and Coats, {Andrew J.S.} and Adriana Crivelli and Evans, {David C.} and Leah Gramlich and Vanessa Fuchs-Tarlovsky and Heather Keller and Luisito Llido and Ainsley Malone and Mogensen, {Kris M.} and Morley, {John E.} and Maurizio Muscaritoli and Ibolya Nyulasi and Matthias Pirlich and Veeradej Pisprasert and {de van der Schueren}, Marian and Soranit Siltharm and Pierre Singer and Tappenden, {Kelly A.} and Nicolas Velasco and Waitzberg, {Dan L.} and Preyanuj Yamwong and Jianchun Yu and Charlene Compher and {Van Gossum}, Andre",
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Jensen, GL, Cederholm, T, Correia, MITD, Gonzalez, MC, Fukushima, R, Higashiguchi, T, de Baptista, GA, Barazzoni, R, Blaauw, R, Coats, AJS, Crivelli, A, Evans, DC, Gramlich, L, Fuchs-Tarlovsky, V, Keller, H, Llido, L, Malone, A, Mogensen, KM, Morley, JE, Muscaritoli, M, Nyulasi, I, Pirlich, M, Pisprasert, V, de van der Schueren, M, Siltharm, S, Singer, P, Tappenden, KA, Velasco, N, Waitzberg, DL, Yamwong, P, Yu, J, Compher, C & Van Gossum, A 2019, 'GLIM Criteria for the Diagnosis of Malnutrition: A Consensus Report From the Global Clinical Nutrition Community', Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpen.1440

GLIM Criteria for the Diagnosis of Malnutrition : A Consensus Report From the Global Clinical Nutrition Community. / Jensen, Gordon L.; Cederholm, Tommy; Correia, M. Isabel T.D.; Gonzalez, M. Christina; Fukushima, Ryoji; Higashiguchi, Takashi; de Baptista, Gertrudis Adrianza; Barazzoni, Rocco; Blaauw, Renée; Coats, Andrew J.S.; Crivelli, Adriana; Evans, David C.; Gramlich, Leah; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa; Keller, Heather; Llido, Luisito; Malone, Ainsley; Mogensen, Kris M.; Morley, John E.; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Nyulasi, Ibolya; Pirlich, Matthias; Pisprasert, Veeradej; de van der Schueren, Marian; Siltharm, Soranit; Singer, Pierre; Tappenden, Kelly A.; Velasco, Nicolas; Waitzberg, Dan L.; Yamwong, Preyanuj; Yu, Jianchun; Compher, Charlene; Van Gossum, Andre.

In: Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Vol. 43, No. 1, 01.2019, p. 32-40.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - GLIM Criteria for the Diagnosis of Malnutrition

T2 - A Consensus Report From the Global Clinical Nutrition Community

AU - Jensen, Gordon L.

AU - Cederholm, Tommy

AU - Correia, M. Isabel T.D.

AU - Gonzalez, M. Christina

AU - Fukushima, Ryoji

AU - Higashiguchi, Takashi

AU - de Baptista, Gertrudis Adrianza

AU - Barazzoni, Rocco

AU - Blaauw, Renée

AU - Coats, Andrew J.S.

AU - Crivelli, Adriana

AU - Evans, David C.

AU - Gramlich, Leah

AU - Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa

AU - Keller, Heather

AU - Llido, Luisito

AU - Malone, Ainsley

AU - Mogensen, Kris M.

AU - Morley, John E.

AU - Muscaritoli, Maurizio

AU - Nyulasi, Ibolya

AU - Pirlich, Matthias

AU - Pisprasert, Veeradej

AU - de van der Schueren, Marian

AU - Siltharm, Soranit

AU - Singer, Pierre

AU - Tappenden, Kelly A.

AU - Velasco, Nicolas

AU - Waitzberg, Dan L.

AU - Yamwong, Preyanuj

AU - Yu, Jianchun

AU - Compher, Charlene

AU - Van Gossum, Andre

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - Background: This initiative aims to build a global consensus around core diagnostic criteria for malnutrition in adults in clinical settings. Methods: The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) was convened by several of the major global clinical nutrition societies. Empirical consensus was reached through a series of face-to-face meetings, telephone conferences, and e-mail communications. Results: A 2-step approach for the malnutrition diagnosis was selected, that is, first screening to identify at risk status by the use of any validated screening tool, and second, assessment for diagnosis and grading the severity of malnutrition. The malnutrition criteria for consideration were retrieved from existing approaches for screening and assessment. Potential criteria were subjected to a ballot among GLIM participants that selected 3 phenotypic criteria (non-volitional weight loss, low body mass index, and reduced muscle mass) and 2 etiologic criteria (reduced food intake or assimilation, and inflammation or disease burden). To diagnose malnutrition at least 1 phenotypic criterion and 1 etiologic criterion should be present. Phenotypic metrics for grading severity are proposed. It is recommended that the etiologic criteria be used to guide intervention and anticipated outcomes. The recommended approach supports classification of malnutrition into four etiology-related diagnosis categories. Conclusions: A consensus scheme for diagnosing malnutrition in adults in clinical settings on a global scale is proposed. Next steps are to secure endorsements from leading nutrition professional societies, to identify overlaps with syndromes like cachexia and sarcopenia, and to promote dissemination, validation studies, and feedback. The construct should be re-considered every 3–5 years.

AB - Background: This initiative aims to build a global consensus around core diagnostic criteria for malnutrition in adults in clinical settings. Methods: The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) was convened by several of the major global clinical nutrition societies. Empirical consensus was reached through a series of face-to-face meetings, telephone conferences, and e-mail communications. Results: A 2-step approach for the malnutrition diagnosis was selected, that is, first screening to identify at risk status by the use of any validated screening tool, and second, assessment for diagnosis and grading the severity of malnutrition. The malnutrition criteria for consideration were retrieved from existing approaches for screening and assessment. Potential criteria were subjected to a ballot among GLIM participants that selected 3 phenotypic criteria (non-volitional weight loss, low body mass index, and reduced muscle mass) and 2 etiologic criteria (reduced food intake or assimilation, and inflammation or disease burden). To diagnose malnutrition at least 1 phenotypic criterion and 1 etiologic criterion should be present. Phenotypic metrics for grading severity are proposed. It is recommended that the etiologic criteria be used to guide intervention and anticipated outcomes. The recommended approach supports classification of malnutrition into four etiology-related diagnosis categories. Conclusions: A consensus scheme for diagnosing malnutrition in adults in clinical settings on a global scale is proposed. Next steps are to secure endorsements from leading nutrition professional societies, to identify overlaps with syndromes like cachexia and sarcopenia, and to promote dissemination, validation studies, and feedback. The construct should be re-considered every 3–5 years.

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