Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is essential for the biosynthesis of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, which serve as cofactors for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase. GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme for BH4 biosynthesis. Genetic defects in an allele of the GCH gene can result in dopa-responsive dystonia due to partial BH4 deficiency. To explore the transcriptional control of the GCH gene, we analyzed the signaling pathway. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) greatly enhanced the expression of GCH in RAW264 cells, and the induction of GCH by LPS was suppressed by treatment with either a MEK1/2 inhibitor or an inhibitor for the NF-κB pathway. Next, we analyzed two types of biopterin-deficient transgenic mice. We found that both mice exhibited motor disorders with slight differences. Dopamine and TH protein levels were markedly and concurrently increased from birth (P0) to P21 in wild-type mice, and these increases were abolished in both types of biopterin-deficient mice. Our results suggest that the developmental manifestation of psychomotor symptoms in BH4 deficiency might be attributable at least partially to the high dependence of dopaminergic development on the availability of BH4.