The role of sphingolipid metabolic pathway has been recognized in determining cellular fate. Although sphingolipid degradation has been extensively studied, gene expression of human sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (SPL) catalyzing sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) remains to be determined. Among 5 human lung cancer cell lines examined, SPL protein levels paralleled the respective mRNA and enzyme activities. Between H1155 and H1299 cells used for further experiments, higher cellular S1P was observed in H1155 with higher SPL activity compared with H1299 with low SPL activity. GATA-4 has been reported to affect SPL transcription in Dictyostelium discoideum. GATA-4 was observed in H1155 but not in other cell lines. Overexpression of GATA-4 in H1299 increased SPL expression. However, promoter analysis of human SPL revealed that the most important region was located between - 136 bp and - 88 bp from the first exon, where 2 Sp1 sites exist but no GATA site. DNA pull-down assay of H1155 showed increased DNA binding of Sp1 and GATA-4 within this promoter region compared with H1299. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, reporter assay using mutated binding motif, and mithramycin A, a specific Sp1 inhibitor, suggest the major role of Sp1 in SPL transcription and no direct binding of GATA-4 with this 5′ promoter region. The collaborative role of GATA-4 was proved by showing coimmunoprecipitation of Sp1 and GATA-4 using GST-Sp1 and overexpressed GATA-4. Thus, high SPL transcription of H1155 cells was regulated by Sp1 and GATA-4/Sp1 complex formation, both of which bind to Sp1 sites of the 5′-SPL promoter.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids|
|Publication status||Published - 03-2011|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology