Aim: The aim of the present study was to clarify esophagogastric junction (EGJ) carcinoma patients who are at high risk of upper and middle mediastinal lymph node (MLN) metastasis. Methods: This was a retrospective study and included 110 consecutive patients with EGJ carcinoma who underwent R0/R1 resection at Keio University Hospital between January 2000 and December 2013. Results: Of the 110 patients, 18 (16.3%) had MLN metastasis, and the number increased to 23 (20.9%) when recurrence cases were added (adenocarcinoma, N = 11; squamous cell carcinoma, N = 12). Patients whose tumor epicenter was located above the EGJ had a significantly higher incidence of MLN metastasis/recurrence (18/51 [35.3%]) than those whose tumor epicenter was located below the EGJ (5/59 [8.5%]). The MLN metastasis/recurrence rate was particularly high when the distance from the EGJ to the proximal edge of the primary tumor was >3 cm for the upper and middle mediastinum (18.8%). Patients in a selected group (≥T2 and tumor epicenter located above the EGJ or below the EGJ with ≥3 cm esophageal invasion) showed 17.9% and 15.4% upper and middle MLN metastasis/recurrence rates, respectively. Therapeutic value of MLN dissection was relatively high (#105 + 106: 8.9, #110: 12.2). Conclusions: Therapeutic value of MLN dissection to treat EGJ carcinomas was relatively high in patients with MLN metastasis. Our algorithm could select patients at high risk for MLN metastasis.
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