Secondary bacterial infection in humans is one of the pathological conditions requiring clinical attention. In this study, we examined the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infected mice. All mice inoculated with EMCV at 5 days before LPS challenge died within 24ĝ€...h. LPS-induced TNF-I ± mRNA expression was significantly increased in the brain and heart at 5 days after EMCV infection. CD11b + /TLR4 + cell population in the heart was remarkably elevated at 5 days after EMCV infection, and sorted CD11b + cells at 5 days after EMCV infection produced a large amount of TNF-I ± on LPS stimulation in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, we found that the infiltration of CD11b + cells into infected organs is involved in the subsequent LPS-induced lethal shock in viral encephalomyocarditis. This new experimental model can help define the mechanism by which secondary bacterial infection causes a lethal shock in viral encephalomyocarditis.
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