Highlighting Unseen Activity Through 48-Hour Continuous Measurement in Subacute Stroke Rehabilitation: Preliminary Cohort Study

Emi Mizuno, Takayuki Ogasawara, Masahiko Mukaino, Masumi Yamaguchi, Shingo Tsukada, Shigeru Sonoda, Yohei Otaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Motor impairments not only lead to a significant reduction in patient activity levels but also trigger a further deterioration in motor function due to deconditioning, which is an issue that is particularly pronounced during hospitalization. This deconditioning can be countered by sustaining appropriate activity levels. Activities that occur outside of scheduled programs, often overlooked, are critical in this context. Wearable technology, such as smart clothing, provides a means to monitor these activities. Objective: This study aimed to observe activity levels in patients who had strokes during the subacute phase, focusing on both scheduled training sessions and other nontraining times in an inpatient rehabilitation environment. A smart clothing system is used to simultaneously measure heart rate and acceleration, offering insights into both the amount and intensity of the physical activity. Methods: In this preliminary cohort study, 11 individuals undergoing subacute stroke rehabilitation were enrolled. The 48-hour continuous measurement system, deployed at admission and reassessed 4 weeks later, monitored accelerometry data for physical activity (quantified with a moving SD of acceleration [MSDA]) and heart rate for intensity (quantified with percent heart rate reserve). The measurements were performed using a wearable activity monitoring system, the hitoe (NTT Corporation and Toray Industries, Inc) system comprising a measuring garment (wear or strap) with integrated electrodes, a data transmitter, and a smartphone. The Functional Independence Measure was used to assess the patients' daily activity levels. This study explored factors such as differences in activity during training and nontraining periods, correlations with activities of daily living (ADLs) and age, and changes observed after 4 weeks. Results: A significant increase was found in the daily total MSDA after the 4-week program, with the average percent heart rate reserve remaining consistent. Physical activity during training positively correlated with ADL levels both at admission (ρ=0.86, P<.001) and 4 weeks post admission (ρ=0.96, P<.001), whereas the correlation between age and MSDA was not significant during training periods at admission (ρ=-0.41, P=.21) or 4 weeks post admission (ρ=-0.25, P=.45). Conversely, nontraining activity showed a negative correlation with age, with significant negative correlations with age at admission (ρ=-0.82, P=.002) and 4 weeks post admission (ρ=-0.73, P=.01). Conclusions: Inpatient rehabilitation activity levels were positively correlated with ADL levels. Further analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between scheduled training activities and ADL levels, whereas nontraining activities showed no such correlation. Instead, a negative correlation between nontraining activities and age was observed. These observations suggest the importance of providing activity opportunities for older patients, while it may also suggest the need for adjusting the activity amount to accommodate the potentially limited fitness levels of this demographic. Future studies with larger patient groups are warranted to validate and further elucidate these findings.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJMIR Formative Research
Publication statusPublished - 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health Informatics


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