Histology of Cardiac Sarcoidosis with Novel Considerations Arranged upon a Pathologic Basis

Shu Kato, Yasuhiro Sakai, Asako Okabe, Yoshiaki Kawashima, Kazuhiko Kuwahara, Kazuya Shiogama, Masato Abe, Hiroyasu Ito, Shin’Ichiro Morimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Sarcoidosis is a rare disease of isolated or diffuse granulomatous inflammation. Although any organs can be affected by sarcoidosis, cardiac sarcoidosis is a fatal disorder, and it is crucial to accurately diagnose it to prevent sudden death due to dysrhythmia. Although endomyocardial biopsy is invasive and has limited sensitivity for identifying granulomas, it is the only modality that yields a definitive diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. It is imperative to develop novel pathological approaches for the precise diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis. Here, we aimed to discuss commonly used diagnostic criteria for cardiac sarcoidosis and to summarize useful and novel histopathologic criteria of cardiac sarcoidosis. While classical histologic observations including noncaseating gran-ulomas and multinucleated giant cells (typically Langhans type) are the most important findings, others such as microgranulomas, CD68+ CD163 pro-inflammatory (M1) macrophage accumulation, CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, Cutibacterium acnes components, lymphangiogenesis, confluent fibrosis, and fatty infiltration may help to improve the sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsy for detecting cardiac sarcoidosis. These novel histologic findings are based on the pathology of cardiac sarcoidosis. We also discussed the principal histologic differential diagnoses of cardiac sarcoidosis, such as tuberculosis myocarditis, fungal myocarditis, giant cell myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number251
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


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