hnRNP A/B proteins are required for inhibition of HIV-1 pre-mRNA splicing

Massimo Caputi, Akila Mayeda, Adrian R. Krainer, Alan M. Zahler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

226 Citations (Scopus)


Splicing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pre-mRNA must be inefficient to provide a pool of unspliced messages which encode viral proteins and serve as genomes for new virions. Negative cis-regulatory elements (exonic splicing silencers or ESSs) are necessary for HIV-1 splicing inhibition. We demonstrate that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) of the A and B group are trans-acting factors required for the function of the tat exon 2 ESS. Depletion of hnRNP A/B proteins from HeLa cell nuclear extract activates splicing of tat exon 2 pre-mRNA substrate. Splicing inhibition is restored by addition of recombinant hnRNP A/B proteins to the depleted extract. A high-affinity hnRNP A1-binding sequence can substitute functionally for the ESS in tat exon 2. These results demonstrate that hnRNP A/B proteins are required for repression of HIV-1 splicing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4060-4067
Number of pages8
JournalEMBO Journal
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 15-07-1999
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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