Human rotaviruses (HuRVAs) are highly important causes of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A lack of reliable and reproducible reverse genetics systems for HuRVAs has limited a proper understanding of HuRVA biology and also the rational design of live-attenuated vaccines. Since the development of the first reverse genetics system for RVAs (partially plasmid-based reverse genetics system) in 2006, there have been many efforts with the goal of generating infectious recombinant HuRVAs entirely from cloned cDNAs. However, the establishment of a HuRVA reverse genetics system was very challenging until 2019. This review article provides an overview of the historical background of the recent development of long-awaited HuRVA reverse genetics systems, beginning with the generation of recombinant human-simian reassortant RVAs with the aid of a helper virus in 2006 and the generation of recombinant animal (simian) RVAs in a helper virus-free manner in 2017, and culminating in the generation of recombinant HuRVAs entirely from plasmid cDNAs in 2019. Notably, the original HuRVA reverse genetics system has already been optimized to increase the efficiency of virus generation. Although the application of HuRVA reverse genetics systems has only just been initiated, these technologies will help to answer HuRVA research questions regarding viral replication and pathogenicity that could not be addressed before, and to develop next-generation vaccines and intestine-specific rotaviral vectors.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases